After 30 years of war and insecurity, Afghanistan is one of the country with the lowest Human Development Index ( at the 15th place of the countries with worst indicators). War and destruction have compromised all fields of society. The chance of life of children , who have suffered the most drammatic impact from this situation, to survive five years after birth is the lowest in Afghanistan. (one baby on four doesn’t survive over this age). Poverty and strife are the main problems which strike the country while young population must face all the worst sores as disability, abuse, child labor, military recruitment, begging, trafficking in human beings, drug addiction. These phenomena derive or are linked with the economic situation, the sanitary condition, traditional and cultural practices, the politic insecurity e the social situation of the country.
The situation of women and young female children deserve a specific mention. They are subjected to discrimination and hard violation of human rights and of their lives . A particulary severe situation is that of children in conflict with law. Despite the ratification in 2005, after the fall of Taliban,of the new code of jovanile justice, children are victims of arbitrary arrests, torture and ill-treatment during terms of custody. They are often deprived from freedom because of minor crimes, of non violent crime or without committing a crime, only to be victims.